Stakes and OutcomesSeptember 16, 2014
Let’s start with the easiest rule: “I say it and it happens.”
That’s the easiest rule to roleplaying and it’s used all the time. Rules, mechanics, etc. are basically add-ons to try to create something more interesting than that. Part of what makes roleplaying as an activity conceptually difficult is that you are doing all the things other fiction does, in terms of constructing a narrative, except you’re coordinating it between several people. Play requires consistently answering these questions on the spot:
– What kind of events fit this game we’re playing?
– What methods/actions can characters take in this game that fits with the mood/expectations/”realism”(feeling) of it?
– What kind of outcomes are reasonable?
(add in an extra hurdle for many games, which is, how do I translate this abstraction of the rules into these things?).
Anyway, beyond the simplest rule, mechanics and systems of resolution basically fold into three types:
A dice roll is made, a point is spent, something is done which provides some limitation on the outcome but the rest is narrated and decided by one person (in traditional games, that’s the GM, nearly always. In narration trading games, it’s explicitly passed around.)
The positive to this side is that whoever has fiat for this has a guaranteed input into play, and their vision can get into the events in play. The negative to this is that if the group isn’t tightly coordinated on what fits in their game (from the questions listed above), then you have all kinds of miscommunication and confusion. “Wait, I thought the fall was like 5 feet, not 500 feet?!?” “What do you mean a failure destroys the whole kingdom? I thought it’d only mess up the castle?” etc.
Negotiated Outcomes sets up a negotiation process as part of figuring out the outcomes. The most common example is stakes setting before dice are rolled or cards played, etc. This lets everyone know the outcomes and players can make better choices about how much resources to spend or how important the outcome will be. There are games like Polaris, Thou Art But a Warrior where negotiation is actually part of the process of resolution, and there are games where you negotiate after the fact (“You win the argument but you give up a concession.” etc.)
Negotiated outcomes are quite flexible, but they are also a little kludgy in many places and there has to be effort on part of the group not to spiral too deep into pre-playing the events before they actually play out, or pushing outcomes beyond the scope of the situation.
Hardcoded Outcomes appear in many places in many games, though usually they’re in combat or magic and sporadically in other types of conflicts. A Hardcoded Outcome means that a dice roll adds a specific event into the fiction – in combat, that would be an injury or death, usually.
When done well, these make it easy to play and shape the fiction in great ways – it helps answer the 3 questions as part of the system itself and makes it so that the group doesn’t have to spend time figuring out what “feels right”. When done poorly, it either breaks the expectations of the fictional world you’ve set up (“Wait, I can jump off a cliff and survive without much trouble?”) or it makes it very hard to translate into the fictional world.
The more modern design take on this would be things like Monsterhearts’ move sets – you roll and pick from a list of pre-set options of outcomes.
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